The Court’s ruling 1 on 2 January 2020, stated that the requirements of art. 19 of the Workers’ Statute to establish union representatives, with the rights referred to in section 3, should not be confused with the principles stated in art. 28 of the Statute (unfair labour practice repression). Art. 19 requires signing of national collective agreements (or provincial or company collective agreements, but applied in the company) or union participation in negotiation of these agreements, as workers’ representatives. Art. 28 only requires the association to be national. The procedure is for cases where protection of the union’s collective interest to freely exercise its prerogatives is challenged. This interest is distinct and autonomous from individual workers’. The Court of Cassation declared the employer’s transfer of 80% of workers registered or affiliated to a trade union from one plant to another to be an unfair labour practice, even if the company’s underlying needs were legitimate. The employer’s conduct was considered to be harmful to the collective interests of the union. In the Court’s view, the statistical element, which reveals a situation of disadvantage for the union, gives rise to a presumption of discrimination. The employer must provide proof to the contrary.